I was alerted to an article on climate change in Mongolia which claims that temperatures there have already risen by more than 2C since the 1940s. A few minutes on Climate Explorer allowed me to check.
Of course the 2C target much loved by the UNFCCC process is for a global average, but the figures below show the available observations from CRUTEM4 for a single grid box in Mongolia for monthly (top) and annual (bottom) means. A linear trend from 1938 to 2011 suggests that temperatures have risen by more then 2C in that time, but the available earlier observations suggest that the 1940s may have been unusually cold, though this is not entirely clear.
This highlights the difficulty of defining a reference period for estimating such temperature changes. Nevertheless, temperatures in Mongolia have increased much faster than the global average over the past 70 years and may have passed a local “2C” threshold.
UPDATE (24/12/12): Neil Pederson reports that tree ring data from Mongolia suggests that 1940s were warm compared to pre-1900s.